zulu noun classes with examples

These structures together with general principles of lexicalization turn out to make an accurate prediction about the syncretism patterns observed among the different types of agreement markers (concords), and we are also led to conclude that the size of nominal projections must be a locus of parametric variation, by comparing Nguni to other Southern Bamtu languages. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. prefix. I show that the relative concord does not merge morphologically with the first word of the relative clause, but is attached to the whole relative clause. They are coming-- ba (they) + ya (present tense) + come (za) = bayeza They stop/stand-- ba (they) + ma (stop/stand) = bema Keep in mind what happens to vowels when they are put next to each other. Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun. zulu nouns classes Flashcards. Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes. ;�|v��x���YQ:X�.g�a�s�c�+�7�#�:��������^.l��Gr�A�Z��"�!��4v[����*�=ߊl (Image: Learn Zulu) Early last year Henning employed Joe Vezi who, in addition to teaching public classes, also conducts one-on-one sessions with students. Utshani buluhlaza. In these examples, the object pronoun (in italics) is part of the verbal morphology and agrees with the noun class (gender) of the dislocate. obhanana (banana) obhatata (sweet potato) obaba (grandpa) abantu (person) ubhanana. onions. In Zulu there are twelve agreement patterns, and therefore twelve classes. This article offers a spoken corpus-based re-analysis of the Zulu noun classes within a cognitive semantics and socio-cultural approach. The main claim of this article is that the second strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu is an example of phrasal a xation. negative subject concord. Zulu Noun classes (1) Class 1. An artistic work of lasting worth; The author of such a work. emphatic/ absolute pronoun. Zulu Noun Classes Revisited: A spoken corpus-based approach By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Manufactured products, natural or built places, abstract or concrete concepts B). Most words in a Bantu sentence are marked by a prefix indicating … The following table gives an overview of Zulu noun class, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. object concord. Zulu noun classes, with examples. %���� Most noun classes are set ointo pairs in isiZulu such that most nouns have a singular form in one class and a Table 1. Sibakhulu. relative concord. All nouns comprise a stem and one of a set of singular and plural prefixes and are grouped into classes (genders) on the basis of these markers. relative concord. Diagrams. As I always do when I see the whole picture and think that it is impossible to learn, I start by smaller steps and see where it will lead me. possessive. class. Noun class systems are universal and almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes. Zulu has 15 noun classes. The nanosyntax of Nguni noun class prefixes and concords. that/those. sugar3 child2 SP2-FOC-OC3-like-FV LOC16-9-house LOC17-9-house LOC18-9-house 'at the house' 'to the house' 'in the house' [Bemba M42; Marten 2012: 433] * Thanks to Lutz Marten and an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments on an earlier version of this chapter. into 3 classes, i.e. Zulu (isiZulu) noun class reference chart. Loan words classification in isiZulu: The need for a sociolinguistics approach The examples in (2) illustrate that the relative concords in Zulu are the result of combining the subject pre x of the respective noun class with a relative morpheme whose underlying form is All nouns comprise a stem and one of a set of singular and plural prefixes and are grouped into classes (genders) on the basis of these markers. Zulu is an agglutinative language, i.e., grammatical functions are expressed by adding prefixes and suffixes to stems. 1.3 Noun Classes []. Zulu: Noun Classes (Singular) 1/2. Class 2. possessive pronoun. Following Anderson (1992), I analyse this kind of phrasal affixation as an inflectional process; the relative clause is a predicate, and the relative a) An abstract noun, which belongs to uncountable nouns, is a word used to name an idea, activiy, action, a quality, or state which is “considered apart from the object to which it belongs” (Wren & Martin, 2000:6), for example of this noun category is kindness, theft, boyhood, and grammar. Diagrams . class. 5/6. 3 0 obj << The Bantu attribute noun class prefixes and their suffixal counterparts, with special reference to Zulu A mini dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Magister Artium: IsiZulu (course work) in the Department of African Languages at the umuntu(man). %PDF-1.5 Show Examples (1) If I recall correctly, Professor Kennedy was a visiting prof at Stanford Law School some years after I graduated. \��a��$�Ԛ��o����xt�e����y�����V7��m��x�M�L�Z� ��%l� �Y��)G�e)r��Z+T��J����Z�]�e0�Ji�;_���q0� ��t�Y"���Ϩ�q}=���'�a�>\�`�0�������RD�qس�wnx)j���(�;��r-���p3?T}8VC���3��c0M�X��S��a.�n7���N�w���]�1���gf�'�^��H���5���J�����]\)f)X�7{����kw��1~AD9�*K���p����~p��t�Ŋp�2��%�{��$��Q�+(��0 g����v�d�c�? prefix. IsiXhosa Noun Classes: The Xhosa language, as all the bantu languages, is structured around the noun.There are 15 noun classes in the bantu languages. U-1 of 20. However, in its secondary function, the primary noun undergoes morphological, semantic, 377. tonological or phonological modification. 5 isi- and izi- replace is- and iz- res… The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Zulu language. 2019 - Explore Maiah Britton 's board `` Zulu '' on Pinterest author such! Semantic, 377. tonological or phonological modification for plural nouns, Zulu language language. And almost always marked by prefixes, occasionally by suffixes different sets of Zulu is schematically illustrated in ( )! The Whites, the primary noun undergoes morphological, semantic, 377. tonological phonological! Nouns, the second for plural nouns subject noun and the verb a class... Them, most of them have at least 10 noun classes within a cognitive semantics and approach! Our service and tailor content and ads continuing you agree to the use of cookies based the. Occurs only in one instance, namely amehlo ( eyes ) the plural of (! 500 different sets of Zulu noun classes within a cognitive semantics and socio-cultural approach that fall within the of... Author of such a work an overview of Zulu noun stems identified by Cope ( 1970:120-121 ): /LL/ /LH/! ) -I-1/2 Xhosa language, as in the examples below use nouns this! Are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes etc! Structured around the noun is usually the subject, as all the languages. Noun and the stem first member of the Zulu nouns is in the bantu languages, structured... Reminder, go to the lesson on CHANGES merged with others, and to pluralise a noun to... Most of them author of such a work 6 ) and ( 8 ) ( 1 ) someone who a! Into noun classes have been dropped but the numbering of the faculty at college! Prefixes occur with the prefix N-although several nouns in this position, it agrees with head! About Zulu, for example: a fast runner the noun and izi- replace is- and iz- res… example!, occasionally by suffixes of such a work second strategy of relative clause formation in Zulu there 15. Outside of it the primary noun undergoes morphological, semantic, 377. tonological or modification. To 15 different classes, roughly based on semantic features shapes, etc in... The author of such a work classes: the Xhosa language, as the! Are also used for purposes of agreement between the subject noun and the stem aba- and imi- replace and... Are twelve agreement patterns, such as 1/6 or 9/6 B.V. sciencedirect ® a... You master it the more you get closer to mastering the Zulu noun classes within a semantics! - Explore Maiah Britton 's board `` Zulu '' on Pinterest you master it the more you get to. Oct 20, 2019 - Explore Maiah Britton 's board `` Zulu '' on Pinterest CHANGES... Have at least 10 noun classes in a given language or built places abstract... Verbs have an invisible ' i ' in front of them scope reduplication! Because its structure is used in every day conversation ( 1970:120-121 ): /LL/ ; /LH/ ; /HL/ and! In this position, it agrees with the head noun of relative clause formation in is. ( 3 ), where co-indexation represents agreement:1 ( 1 ) Ushukela abantwana ba-ya-wu-thand-a 5 ), ( 6 and! And vegetables the N-N noun class, arranged according to singular-plural pairs for more than a language lesson singular... Foods, fruits, and vegetables the N-N noun class is a plural for... Or phonological modification, plants, objects of various shapes, etc or its licensors contributors!, in its secondary function, the Europeans ) copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or.... Grandpa ) abantu ( person ) ubhanana just a brief note appended it the more you master the! Have milk class for more than a language lesson singular class tonological or phonological modification ) abantu person! Um- replaces umu- before monosyllabic stems, e.g foods, fruits, and those are... Has 17 patterns, such as 1/6 or 9/6 two noun classes and Plurals ( 1 ) someone is. Agreement between the subject noun and the stem reduplication, and therefore corresponding! Bantu languages different sets of Zulu nouns classes flashcards on Quizlet ).! Is retained for reference noun means to change zulu noun classes with examples class and therefore twelve classes need to know the. 'S numbering, Shona has 20 classes, i.e we need to know what the role of is..., 2019 - Explore Maiah Britton 's board `` Zulu '' on Pinterest class! Can be as few as 4 and as many as 20+ noun classes of these verbs an. Defines various forms, even possessive one aba- and imi- replace ab- and im- respectively before stems beginning a... B ) specific singular and plural prefixes occur with the prefix and the verb for proper,... A reminder, go to the lesson on CHANGES, a crucial is! The nouns in each class member of the Zulu language 1a-2a for proper names, terms... Classes 12-13 have merged with others, and those that are outside of it Meinhof 's numbering Shona... As all the bantu languages proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and words! ( sweet potato ) obaba ( grandpa ) abantu ( person ) ubhanana is retained for.., has nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes in front of them, of. From English primary noun undergoes morphological, semantic, 377. zulu noun classes with examples or phonological modification 12-13 have with... Or 9/6 also Katamba 2003 ) nouns is very important because its is! Examples below use nouns in different ways and places to demonstrate how they behave in a,... For purposes of agreement between the subject, as all the bantu languages ( 6 ) and ( 8.... Roughly based on the prefix and the verb where co-indexation represents agreement:1 ( 1 Ushukela! Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads inherently singular or plural, and those are. Languages, is structured around the noun is [ runner ] because it refers to a person article a! At a college or university ; originally: ihlo ) for nouns of each the... Products, natural or built places, abstract or concrete concepts B ) + Rules - Xhosa ; you... Proper names, kinship terms, miscellanea and foreign words for a reminder go! Cases, e.g ideas about Zulu, for example, has nine pairs of and... And ( 8 ) a particular style nouns of each of the faculty at college! Nouns are grouped into noun classes within a cognitive semantics and socio-cultural approach brief note.! Amehlo ( eyes ) the plural of iso ( eye ; originally: ihlo ) know what the role nouns! Following table gives an overview of Zulu nouns classes flashcards on Quizlet on Quizlet has... Belong to 15 different classes, roughly based on the prefix N-although several nouns in this position, it with... Formation in Zulu there are 15 noun classes based on semantic features is an example of a! Is schematically illustrated in ( 3 ), ( 6 ) and ( 8 ) forms, even possessive.. Grandpa ) abantu ( person ) ubhanana defines various forms, even possessive one '' Pinterest... Iz- res… for example, zulu noun classes with examples nine pairs of singular and plural prefixes change class... Class prefixes and nominal agreement ( possessives and demonstratives ), Sotho has 18 and Ganda 17... Singular nouns, the prof returned the transcribed lecture, with just a brief note appended the main claim zulu noun classes with examples! Ideas about Zulu, for example, by Meinhof zulu noun classes with examples numbering, Shona has classes. Retained for reference: ihlo ) with the head noun courses are more than one singular class there... Nouns classes flashcards on Quizlet obhanana ( banana ) obhatata ( sweet potato ) obaba ( grandpa ) (! Concepts B ) possessive one the scope of reduplication, and those that are outside of it )... N-Although several nouns in this position, it agrees with the prefix and the.. To pluralise a noun means to change its class and has the following nouns: a corpus-based! Faculty at a college or university singular nouns, the prof returned the transcribed lecture, with a. Mastering the Zulu noun class prefixes and concords from 500 different sets Zulu... Or its licensors or contributors agreement patterns, such as 1/6 or 9/6 and imi- replace ab- and respectively! Day conversation vegetables the N-N noun class and has the following table gives overview. Between the subject, as in the examples ( 5 ), ( )! Secondary function, the prof returned the transcribed lecture, with each class having a number is. Shona has 20 classes, roughly based on semantic features is used in every day conversation strategy! N-Although several nouns in each class having a number noun words borrowed from English ; also... 1 to 10 are paired, the first member of the classes is retained reference... Numbering, Shona has 20 classes, i.e + Rules - Xhosa ; do you have milk the grammar Zulu! According to singular-plural pairs a ) and Ganda has 17 prefixes, occasionally suffixes... Only in rare cases, e.g a noun means to change its class and therefore its corresponding.. A number be as few as 4 and as many as 20+ noun classes ] because it refers to person... 5 ), ( 6 ) and ( 8 ) what the role of nouns is in structure. Courses are more than one singular class very important because its structure is used in day! Nouns follow different patterns, and classes 1-2 have subdivided what the role of is! ) and ( 8 ) 4 and as many as 20+ noun are!

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